Axel Cleeremans



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Cleeremans, A. (1993). Mechanisms of Implicit Learning: Connectionist Models of Sequence Processing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press/Bradford Books.

French, R.M., & Cleeremans, A. (2002). Implicit Learning and Consciousness: An empirical, philosophical and computational consensus in the making. Hove: Psychology Press.

Cleeremans, A. (2003). The Unity of Consciousness: Binding, Integration, and Dissociation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bayne, T., Cleeremans, A., & Wilken, P. (2009). The Oxford Companion to Consciousness. Oxford: Oxford University Press.



Van Opstal, F., De Loof, E., Verguts, T., & Cleeremans, A. (2016). Spontaneous eyeblinks during breaking continuous flash suppression are associated with increased detection times. Journal of Vision, 16(14):21, 1-10

Alamia, A., de Xivry, J.-J., San Anton, E., Olivier, E., Cleeremans, A., & Zenon, A. (2016). Unconscious associative learning with conscious cues. Neuroscience of Consciousness, 2016(1), 1-10.

Caspar, E., Desantis, A., Dienes, Z., Cleeremans, A., & Haggard, P. (2016). The sense of agency as tracking control. PLoS One, 11(10): e0163892.

Wagenmakers, E.-J., Beek, T., Dijkhoff, L., Gronau, Q. F., Acosta, A., Adams, R. B., Jr., Albohn, D. N., Allard, E. S., Benning, S. D., Blouin-Hudon, E.-M., Bulnes, L. C., Caldwell, T. L., Calin-Jageman, R. J., Capaldi, C. A., Carfagno, N. S., Chasten, K. T., Cleeremans, A., Connell, L., DeCicco, J. M., Dijkstra, K., Fischer, A. H., Foroni, F., Hess, U., Holmes, K. J., Jones, J. L. H., Klein, O., Koch, C., Korb, S., Lewinski, P., Liao, J. D., Lund, S., Lupiáñez, J., Lynott, D., Nance, C. N., Oosterwijk, S., Özdoğru, A. A., Pacheco-Unguetti, A. P., Pearson, B., Powis, C., Riding, S., Roberts, T.-A., Rumiati, R. I., Senden, M., Shea-Shumsky, N. B., Sobocko, K., Soto, J. A., Steiner, T. G., Talarico, J. M., van Allen, Z. M., Vandekerckhove, M., Wainwright, B., Wayand, J. F., Zeelenberg, R., Zetzer, E. E., Zwaan, R. A. (2016). Registered Replication Report: Strack, Martin, & Stepper (1988). Perspectives on Psychological Science, 11(6), 917-928

Camara Lopez, M., Deliens, G., & Cleeremans, A. (2016). Ecological assessment of divided attention: What about the current tools and relevancy of virtual reality? Revue Neurologique, 172, 270-280.

Caspar, E. Christensen, J.F., Cleeremans, A., & Haggard, P. (2016). Coercion changes the sense of agency in the human brain. Current Biology, 26, 1-8.

Cleeremans, A., Ginsburgh, V., Klein, O., & Noury, A. G. (2016). What’s in a name? The effect of an Artist’s name on aesthetic judgments. Empirical Studies of the Arts, 34, 126-139. 

Atas, A., Desender, K., Gevers, W., & Cleeremans, A. (2016). Dissociating perception from action during conscious and unconscious conflict adaptation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 42(6), 866-881. PDF


Caspar, E., & Cleeremans, A. (2016). ‘Free Will’: Are we all equal ? A dynamical perspective of the conscious intention to move. Neuroscience of consciousness, 2015, 1-10.

Deliens, G., Stercq, F., Mary, A., Slama, H., Cleeremans, A., Peigneux, P., & Kissine, M. (2015). Impact of acute sleep deprivation on sarcasm detection. PLoS One, 10(11):e0140527. 

De Loof, E., Poppe, L., Cleeremans, A., Gevers, W., & Van Opstal, F. (2015). Different effects of executive and visuospatial memory on visual consciousness. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 1-6.

Anzulewicz, A., Asanowicz, D., Windey, B., Paulewicz, B, Wierzchon, M., & Cleeremans, A. (2015). Does level of processing affect the transition from unconscious to conscious perception? Consciousness and Cognition, 36, 1-11. PDF

Windey, B. & Cleeremans, A. (2015). Consciousness as a graded and an all-or-none phenomenon: A conceptual analysis. Consciousness and Cognition, 35, 185-191. PDF

Franco, A., Eberlen, J., Destrebecqz, A., Cleeremans, A., & Bertels, J. (2015). Rapid Serial auditory presentation: A new measure of statistical learning in speech segmentation. Experimental Psychology. PDF

Atas, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2015). The temporal dynamic of automatic inhibition of irrelevant actions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 41(2), 289-305. PDF

Caspar, E., Cleeremans, A., & Haggard, P. (2015). The relationship between human agency and embodiment. Consciousness & Cognition, 33, 226-236. PDF


Cleeremans, A. (2014). Consciousness and attention: Learned loops in the brain, Vestnik of Saint-Petersburg University, Series 16 (4), 25-40.

Franco, A., Gaillard, V., Cleeremans, A., & Destrebecqz, A. (2014). Assessing segmentation processes by click detection: Online measure of statistical learning, or simple interference? Behaviour Research Methods. PDF

Gaillard, V., Cleeremans, A., & Destrebecqz, A. (2014). Dissociating conscious and unconscious learning with objective and subjective measures. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 45(1), 50-56. PDF

Atas, A., San Anton Moracho, E., & Cleeremans, A. (2014). The reversal of perceptual and motor compatibility effects differs qualitatively between metacontrast and random line masks. Psychological Research, 1-16. PDF

Cleeremans, A. (2014). Connecting conscious and unconscious cognition. Cognitive science, 38(6), 1286-1315. PDF

Wierzchoń, M., Paulewicz, B., Asanowicz, D., Timmermans, B. & Cleeremans, A. (2014). Different subjective awareness measures demonstrate the influence of visual identification on perceptual awareness ratings. Consciousness and Cognition, 27, 109-120. PDF

Doyen, S., Klein, O., Simons, D., & Cleeremans, A. (2014). On the other side of the mirror: Priming in cognitive and social psychology. Social Cognition, 32 (Supplement: Understanding priming effects in social psychology), 12-32. PDF

Brevers, D., Bechara, A., Cleeremans, A., Kornreich, C., Verbanck, P., Noël; X. (2014) Impaired decision-making under risk in individuals with alcohol dependence. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 38(7), 1924-1931. PDF

Caspar, E., De Beir, A., Magalhães de Saladanha da Gama, P., Yernaux, F., Cleeremans, A., Vanderborght, B. (2014). New frontiers in the rubber hand experiment: When a robotic hand becomes one’s own. Behaviour Research Methods. PDF

Wierzchoń, M., Szczepanowski, R., Anzulewicz, A. & Cleeremans, A. (2014). When a (precise) awareness measure became a (sketchy) instrospective report. Consciousness & Cognition, 26, 1-2. PDF

Windey, B., Vermeiren, A., Atas, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2014). The graded and dichotomous nature of visual awareness. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 369 (1641). PDF

Waroquier, L., Abadie, M., Klein, O., & Cleeremans, A. (2014). The effect of cognitive demands of the distraction task on unconscious thought: Open Peer Commentary to B. Newell & D. Shanks, Unconscious influences on decision making: A critical review. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 37:1, 44.


Laasonen, M., Väre, J., Oksanen-Hennah, H., Leppämäki, S., Tani, P., Harno, H., Hokkanen, L., Pothos, E., & Cleeremans, A. (2013). Project DyAdd: Implicit learning in adult dyslexia and ADHD. Annals of Dyslexia, 1-33.

Atas, A., Faivre, N., Timmermans, B., Cleeremans, A. & Kouider, S. (2013). Nonconscious learning from crowded sequences. Psychological Science, 25(1), 113–119. PDF

Atas, A., Vermeiren, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2013). Repeating a strongly masked stimulus increases priming and awareness. Consciousness and Cognition, 22, 1422-1430. PDF

Windey, B., Gevers, W., & Cleeremans, A. (2013). Subjective visibility depends on level of processing. Cognition, 44(2), 404-409. PDF

Brevers, D., Bechara, A., Cleeremans, A., Noël, X. (2013). The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT): Twenty years after — Gambling disorder and IGT. Frontiers in Decision Neurosciences, 4, article 665.

Magalhães de Saladanha da Gama, P., Slama, H., Caspar, E., Gevers, W., & Cleeremans, A. (2013). Placebo-suggestion modulates conflict resolution in the Stroop Task. PLos One 8(10): e75701.

Urbain, C., Schmitz, R., Schmidt, C., Cleeremans, A., Van Bogaert, P., Maquet, P., & Peigneux, P. (2013). Sleep-dependent neurophysiological processes in implicit sequence learning. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 25(11), 2003-2014.

Szczepanowski, R., Traczyk, J., Wierzchoń, M., & Cleeremans, A. (2013). The perception of visual emotion: Comparing different measures of awareness. Consciousness and Cognition, 22(1), 212-220. PDF

Schmitz, R., Pasquali, A., Cleeremans, A., & Peigneux, P. (2013). Lateralized implicit sequence learning in uni- and bi-manual conditions. Brain and Cognition, 81, 1-9.

Brevers, D., Cleeremans, A., Hermant, C., Tibboel, H., Kornreich, C., Verbanck, P., & Noël, X. (2013). Implicit gambling attitudes in problem gamblers: Positive but not negative associations. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 44(1), 94-97.


Brevers, D., Cleeremans, A., Verbruggen, F., Bechara, A., Kornreich, C., Verbanck, P., Noël, X. (2012). Impulsive action but not impulsive choice determines problem gambling severity. PLoS One, 7(11), e50647.

Brevers, D., Cleeremans, A., Bechara, A., Greisen, M., Kornreich, C., Verbanck, P., & Noël, X. (2012). Impaired metacognitive capacities in individuals with problem gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies. PDF

Brevers, D., Cleeremans, A., Goudriaan, A.E., Bechara, A., Kornreich, C., Verbanck, P., Noël, X. (2012). Decision making under ambiguity but not under risk is related to problem gambling severity. Psychiatry Research, 200(2-3), 568-574. PDF

Klein, O., Doyen, S., Leys, C., Magalhães de Saladanha da Gama, P., Miller, S., Questienne, L., & Cleeremans, A. (2012). Low hopes, high expectations: Expectancy effects and the replicability of behavioural experiments, Perspectives in Psychological Science, 7(6), 572-584.

Gaillard, V., Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2012). The influence of articulatory suppression on the control of implicit sequence knowledge. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, article 208, 1-9.

Wierzchoń, M., Asanowicz, D., Paulewicz, B., & Cleeremans, A. (2012). Subjective measures of consciousness in artificial grammar learning tasks. Consciousness and Cognition, 21(3), 1141-1153. PDF

Brevers, D., Cleeremans, A., Bechara, A., Greisen, M., Kornreich, C., Verbanck, P., & Noël, X. (2012). Impaired self-awareness in pathological gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies, 29(1), 119-219. PDF

Wierzchoń, M., Gaillard, V., Asanowicz, D., & Cleeremans, A. (2012). Manipulating attentional load in sequence learning through random number generation. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 8(2), 179-195.

Timmermans, B., Schilbach, L., Pasquali, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2012). Higher-order thoughts in action: Consciousness as an unconscious redescription process. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 367(1594), 1412-1423. PDF

Magalhães de Saladanha da Gama, P., Davy, T. & Cleeremans, A. (2012). Belgian norms for the Waterloo-Standord Group C (WSGC) Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 60(3), 356-369. PDF

Vermeiren, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2012). The validity of d’ measures. PLoS One, (7)2, e31595.

Doyen, S., Klein, O., Pichon, C.-L., & Cleeremans, A. (2012). Behavioural priming: It’s all in the mind, but whose mind? PLoS One.


Brevers, D., Cleeremans, A., Bechara, A., Laloyaux, C., Kornreich, C., Verbanck, P., Noël, X. (2011). Time course of attentional bias for gambling information in problem gambling, Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 25(4), 675-682. PDF

Sandberg, K., Bibby, B.M., Timmermans, B., Cleeremans, A. & Overgaard, M. (2011). Measuring consciousness: Task accuracy and awareness as sigmoid functions of stimulus duration. Consciousness and Cognition, 20, 1659-1675. PDF

Franco, A., Cleeremans, A., & Destrebecqz, A. (2011) Statistical learning of two artificial languages presented successively: How conscious? Frontiers in Language Sciences, Article 229, 1-12.

Cleeremans, A. (2011). The Radical Plasticity Thesis: How the brain learns to be conscious. Frontiers in Psychology, 2, 1-12.

Capa, R., Cleeremans, A., Bustin, G., Bouquet, C.A., & Hansenne, M. (2011). Effects of subliminal priming on nonconscious goal pursuit and effort-related cardiovascular response. Social Cognition, 29, 430-444. PDF

Legrain, L., Cleeremans, A., & Destrebecqz, A. (2011). Distinguishing three levels of explicit self-awareness. Consciousness and Cognition, 20(3), 578-585. PDF

Brevers, D., Cleeremans, A., Tibboel, H., Bechara, A., Kornreich, C., Verbanck, P., & Noël, X. (2011). Reduced attentional blink for gambling-related stimuli in problem gamblers. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 42(3), 265-269. PDF

Capa, R., Bustin, G., Cleeremans, A., Hansenne, M. (2011). Conscious and unconscious reward cues can affect a critical component of executive control: (Un)conscious updating? Experimental Psychology, 58(5), 370-375.

Capa, R. Cleeremans, A, Bustin, G., Hansenne, M. (2011). Long-lasting effect of subliminal processes on cardiovascular responses and performance. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 81, 22-30. PDF


Pasquali, A., Timmermans, B., & Cleeremans, A. (2010). Know Thyself: Metacognitive networks and measures of consciousness. Cognition, 117, 182-190. PDF

Chambaron, S., Berbérian, B., Ginhac, D., Delbecque, L., & Cleeremans, A. (2010). Action, observation, et imagerie mentale d’une action: Peut-on apprendre implicitement dans tous les cas? L’Année Psychologique, 110, 351-364.

Timmermans, B., Sandberg, K., Cleeremans, A., Overgaard, M. (2010). Partial awareness distinguishes between conscious perception and conscious content: Reply to Dienes & Seth. Consciousness and Cognition, 19, 1081-1083.

Overgaard, M., Sandberg, C., Timmermans, B., & Cleeremans, A. (2010). Optimizing subjective measures of awareness. Consciousness & Cognition, 19, 682-684.

Sandberg, C., Timmermans, B., Overgaard, M., & Cleeremans, A. (2010). Measuring consciousness: Is one measure better than the other? Consciousness & Cognition, 19, 1069-1078. PDF

Timmermans, B., Windey, B., & Cleeremans, A. (2010). Experiencing more complexity than we can tell. Cognitive Neuroscience, 1(3), 229-230.

Cleeremans, A. (2010). The Grand Challenge for Psychology: Integrate and fire! Frontiers in Psychology, 1, 12, 1-2.

Berbérian, B, & Cleeremans, A. (2010). Endogenous vs. exogenous change: Change detection, self, and Agency, Consciousness and Cogntion, 19(1), 198-214. PDF

Berbérian, B., Chambaron-Ginhac, S., & Cleeremans, A. (2010). Action blindness in response to gradual changes. Consciousness & Cognition, 19(1), 152-171. PDF

Waroquier, L., Marchiori, D., Klein, O., & Cleeremans, A. (2010). Is it better to think unconsciously or to trust your first impression? A reassessment of Unconscious Thought Theory. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 1(2), 111-118. PDF

Delvenne, J.-F., Cleeremans, A., & Laloyaux, C. (2010). Feature bindings are maintained in visual short-term memory without sustained focused attention. Experimental Psychology, 57(2), 108-116. PDF 

Destrebecqz, A. Perruchet, P., Cleeremans, A., Laureys, S., Maquet, P. & Peigneux, P. (2010). The influence of temporal factors on automatic priming and conscious expectancy in a simple reaction time task, The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63(2), 291-309. PDF


Waroquier, L., Klein, O., & Cleeremans, A. (2009). Methodological pitfalls of the Unconscious Thought Paradigm. Judgment and Decision Making, 4(7), 601-610.

Gaillard, V., Destrebecqz, A., Michiels, S., & Cleeremans, A. (2009). Effects of Age and Practice in sequence learning: A graded account of aging, learning and control”. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 21, 255-282.


Overgaard, M., Fehl, K., Mouridsen, K., Bergholt, B., & Cleeremans, A. (2008). Seeing without seeing? Degraded conscious vision in a blindsight patient. PLoS One, 8(3), e3028.

Sarrazin, J.-C., Cleeremans, A., Haggard, P. (2008). How do we know what we are doing? Time, intention, and awareness of action. Consciousness and Cognition, 17, 602-615. PDF

Laloyaux, C., Devue, C., Doyen, S., David, E. & Cleeremans, A. (2008). Undetected changes in visible stimuli influence subsequent decisions. Consciousness and Cognition, 17, 646-656. PDF

Seth, A.K., Dienes, Z., Cleeremans, A., Overgaard, M., & Pessoa, L. (2008). Measuring consciousness: Relating behavioural and neurophysiological approaches. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12(8), 314-321. PDF

Cleeremans, A. (2008). Consciousness: The Radical Plasticity Thesis. Progress in Brain Research, 168, 19-33. PDF


Cleeremans, A. (2007). Dans le cerveau d’Homer Simpson: La psychologie économique à l’heure du neuromarketing. Psychologie du Travail et des Organisations, 13(4), 53-75.

Taylor, J.G., Freeman, W., & Cleeremans, A. (2007). Introduction to the special issue on “Brain and Consciousness”. Neural Networks, 20(9), 929-931. 

Cleeremans, A., Timmermans, B, & Pasquali, A. (2007). Consciousness and metarepresentation: A computational sketch. Neural Networks, 20(9), 1032-1039. PDF

Cleeremans, A. & Sarrazin, J.-C. (2007). Time, action, and consciousness. Human Movement Science, 26(2), 180-202.

Bremner, A., Mareschal, D., Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2007). Cognitive control at 2 years of age: Evidence from an incidental sequence learning and generation task. Psychological Science, 18(3), 261-266. PDF


David, E., Laloyaux, C., Devue, C., & Cleeremans, A. (2006). Change blindness to gradual changes in facial expression. Psychologica Belgica, 46(4), 253-268.

Gaillard, V., Vandenberghe, M., Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2006). First- and third-person approaches in implicit learning research. Consciousness and Cognition, 15, 709-722.

Perruchet, P., Cleeremans, A., & Destrebecqz, A. (2006). Dissociating the effects of automatic activation and expectancy on reaction times in a simple associative learning task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 32(5), 955-965.

Laloyaux, C., Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2006). Implicit change identification: A replication of Fernandez-Duque & Thorton (2003). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 32(6), 1366-1379.

Vandenberghe, M., Schmidt, N., Féry, P., & Cleeremans, A. (2006). Can amnesic participants learn without awareness? New evidence comparing deterministic and probabilistic sequence learning. Neuropsychologia, 44, 1629-1641.


Peigneux, P., Destrebecqz, A., Hotermans, C., & Cleeremans, A. (2005). Filling one gap by creating another one: Memory stabilization is not all-or-nothing either. Open peer commentary to Walker. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28, 78.

Cleeremans, A. & Destrebecqz, A. (2005). Real rules are conscious. Open peer commentary to Pothos. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28, 19

Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2005). Implicit learning in a prediction task: Neither abstract nor based on exemplars. Current Psychology Letters / Behavior, Brain & Cognition.

Destrebecqz, A., Peigneux, P., Laureys, S., Degueldre, C., Del Fiore, G, Aerts, J., Luxen A. Van der linden, M., Cleeremans, A., Maquet, P. (2005). The neural correlates of implicit and explicit sequence learning: Interacting networks revealed by the process dissociation procedure. Learning and Memory, 12(5), 480-490. PDF

Maia, T.V., & Cleeremans, A. (2005). Consciousness: Converging insights from connectionist modeling and neuroscience. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9(8), 397-404. PDF

Bierman, D., Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2005). Intuitive decision making in complex situations: Somatic markers in an artificial grammar learning task. Cognitive, Affective, and Behaviorial Neuroscience, 5(3), 297-305. PDF

Boyer, M., Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A., (2005). Processing abstract sequence structure: Learning without knowing, or knowing without learning? Psychological Research, 69, 383-398. PDF

Cleeremans, A. (2005). Computational correlates of consciousness. Progress in Brain Research, 150, 81-98.


Cleeremans, A. (2004). No paper on a given year? Make up a self-referential title like this one, and no one will notice: Gaming your bibliography. Annals of Self-Deception, 1, 1, 1-1.


Peigneux, P., Laureys, S., Fuchs, S., Destrebecqz, A., Collette, F., Delbeuck, X., Phillips, C., Aerts, J., Del Fiore, G., Degueldre, C., Luxen, A., Cleeremans, A., Maquet, P. (2003). Learned material content and acquisition level modulate cerebral reactivation during post-training REM sleep, Neuroimage, 20(1), 125-134.

Destrebecqz, A., Peigneux, P., Laureys, S., Degueldre, C., Del Fiore, G., Aerts, J., Luxen, A., van der Linden, M., Cleeremans, A., Maquet, P. (2003). Cerebral correlates of explicit sequence learning, Cognitive Brain Research, 16, 391-398.

Destrebecqz, A, & Cleeremans, A. (2003). The Self-Organizing Conundrum. Open peer commentary to Perruchet and Vinter. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 25, 334.

Maquet, P., Peigneux, P., Laureys, S., Boly, M., Dang-Vu, T., Desseilles, M., Cleeremans, A. (2003). Memory processing during human sleep as assessed by functional neuroimaging. Revue neurologique, 159 (Suppl.11):6S27-9


Cleeremans, A. (2002). Handlung und Bewusstsein: Ein Rahmenkonzept für den Fertigkeitserwerb. Psychologie und Sport, 9, 2-19.


Laureys, S., Peigneux, P., Phillips, C., Fuchs, S., Degueldre, C., Aerts, J., Del Fiore, G., Petiau, C., Luxen, A., Van der Linden, M., Cleeremans, A., Smith, C., & Maquet, P. (2001). Experience-dependent changes in cerebral connectivity during human rapid eye movement sleep. Neuroscience, 105, 521-525.

Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2001). Can sequence learning be implicit? New evidence with the Process Dissociation Procedure, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 8(2), pp. 343-350. PDF

Pacton, S., Perruchet, P., Fayol, M. & Cleeremans, A. (2001). Implicit learning out of the lab: The case of orthographic regularities. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 130 (3), 401-426.


Maquet, P., Laureys, S., Peigneux, P., Fuchs, S., Petiaux, C., Phillips, C., Aerts, J., Delfiore, G., Degueldre, C., Meulemans, T., Luxen, A., Franck, G., Van der Linden, M., Smith, C., & Cleeremans, A. (2000). Experience-dependent changes in cerebral activation during human REM sleep, Nature Neuroscience, 3(8), 831-836. PDF

Atkinson, A., Thomas, M., & Cleeremans, A. (2000). Consciousness: Mapping the theoretical landscape, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4(10), 372-382. PDF

Peigneux, P., Maquet, P., Meulemans, T., Destrebecqz, A., Laureys, S., Degueldre, C., Delfiore, G., Luxen, A., Franck, G., Van der Linden, M., & Cleeremans, A. (2000) Striatum forever, despite sequence learning variability: A random effect analysis of PET data. Human Brain Mapping, 10(4), 179-194.


Cleeremans, A., & Haynes, J.-D. (1999). Correlating Consciousness: A view from empirical science. Revue Internationale de Philosophie, 53, 387-420. PDF

Peigneux, P., Maquet, P., Van der Linden, M., Meulemans, T., Degueldre, C., Delfiore, G., Luxen, A., Cleeremans, A., & Franck, G. (1999). Left inferior frontal cortex is involved in probabilistic serial reaction time learning. Brain and Cognition, 40, 215-219.

Jiménez, L. & Cleeremans, A. (1999). Fishing with the wrong nets: How the implicit slips through the representational theory of mind. Open peer commentary to Dienes & Perner. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 22, 771.

Cleeremans, A., & Jiménez, L. (1999). Stability and explicitness: In defense of implicit representation. Open peer commentary to O’Brien & Opie. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 22, 151-152.

Dufranne, M., & Cleeremans, A (1999). Formation et jeux de simulation. Le Travail Humain, 62, 1-24.


Cleeremans, A. Destrebecqz, A., & Boyer, M. (1998). Implicit learning: News from the front. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2, 406-416. PDF

Cleeremans, A. (1998). The other hard problem: How to bridge the gap between symbolic and subsymbolic cognition. Open peer commentary to Schyns, Goldstone & Thibaut. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 21, 22-23.


Cleeremans, A., & Content, A. (1997). Current directions in implicit learning: Where is it that we were supposed to go again? Psychologica Belgica, 37, 1–7.

Cleeremans, A. (1997). Sequence learning in a dual-stimulus situation. Psychological Research, 60, 72–86.


Cleeremans, A., & French, R.M. (1996). From chicken squawking to cognition: Levels of description and the computational approach in psychology. Psychologica Belgica, 36, 5-29.

Jiménez, L., Méndez, C. & Cleeremans, A. (1996). Measures of awareness and of sequence knowledge. PSYCHE, 2(20).

Jiménez, L., Méndez, C. & Cleeremans, A. (1996). Comparing direct and indirect measures of sequence learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 22, 948-969. PDF


Cleeremans, A. (1994). Awareness and abstraction are graded dimensions: Open peer commentary to Shanks & StJohn. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 17, 402–403.


Cleeremans, A. & McClelland, J.L. (1991). Learning the structure of event sequences. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 120, 235-253. PDF

Servan-Schreiber, D., Cleeremans, A. & McClelland, J.L. (1991). Graded State Machines: The representation of temporal contingencies in simple recurrent networks. Machine Learning, 7, 161-193. Note: Reprinted in Honavar, V., & Uhr, L. (Eds.), Artificial Intelligence and Neural Networks: Steps Toward Principled Integration. Boston: Academic Press (1994). PDF


McClelland, J.L., Cleeremans, A., & Servan-Schreiber, D. (1990). Parallel Distributed Processing: Bridging the gap between human and machine intelligence. Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence, 5, 2-14.


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